The active materials in a lead-acid battery are the chemicals in the cell that are actively involved in chemical reactions while charging, discharging, absorbing, or generating electricity.
The following are the active materials in a lead-acid cell:
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For the positive plate, lead peroxide (PbO2) is used. It’s made up of lead and oxygen, and it’s a dark chocolate brown material that’s fairly hard yet fragile. It has the chemical formula PbO2 and is made up of one atom of lead (Pb) and two atoms of oxygen (O2). As previously stated, it is a positive active material.
For the negative plate, (Pb) is used. It’s pure lead in a porous or soft sponge form. It has the chemical formula Pb and is used to create the negative active material.
Dilute Sulphuric acid:
As an electrolyte, diluted sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used. There are approximately three parts of water with one part of sulphuric acid in this solution. The electrolyte solution is used to submerge both the positive and negative plates. It is the medium in which chemical changes are caused by the current.
The presence of two plates coated with PbO2 and Pb in a solution of dilute H2SO4 with a specific gravity of 1.21 or near to it is required for the lead-acid cell to function. Because lead in the form of PbO2 or sponge Pb has a low mechanical strength, it is supported by pure lead plates. Positive plates are those that are coated with or otherwise support PbO2, whereas negative plates are those that support sponge lead. The positive and negative plates are placed in an alternating pattern and are linked to two common positive and negative terminals. To produce a full cell, these plates are assembled in an appropriate jar or container.
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