Different Parts of a Lead-acid Battery

Positive and negative plates, separators, and electrolytes make up each cell of a lead-acid battery, which are all stored in one of the many compartments of the battery container. The tubular cell, which consists of an ‘armored’ tubular positive plate and a normal flat negative plate, is the most popular type of lead-acid cell used for maritime applications.

The following are the various components of a lead-acid battery:


A plate is made out of a cast antimonial lead alloy lattice grid that is wrapped with active material. The grid not only supports the delicate active material but also carries electricity. Positive and negative plate grids are usually of the same pattern, while negative plate grids are lighter. Plante plates are commonly used for positive plates, whereas pasted plates are used for negative plates.


These are thin sheets of porous material that are inserted between the positive and negative plates to prevent contact and therefore internal short-circuiting of the battery. A separator, on the other hand, must be porous enough to allow electrolyte diffusion or circulation between the plates. These are constructed from specially processed cedar wood, glass wool mat, microporous rubber (mipor), microporous plastics (plastipore, miplast), and perforated polyvinyl chloride. A separator must have strong electrical resistance and mechanical robustness in addition to appropriate porosity.


The plates in the cell compartment are completely submerged in diluted sulphuric acid. The battery electrolyte is made from diluted sulphuric acid.


Vulcanized rubber or molded hard rubber (ebonite), molded plastic, ceramics, glass, or celluloid can all be used to make battery containers. Glass containers are ideal for lighting plants and wireless sets, while vulcanized rubber containers are employed for automotive servicing. Portable wireless set batteries are typically packaged in celluloid containers.

Bottom Grooved Support Blocks:

These are elevated ribs that are either installed in the container’s bottom or constructed from the container itself. They support and keep the plates in place, as well as protect them from short circuits that may occur if the plates’ active material dropped to the bottom of the container.

Connecting Bar:

It’s the lead alloy connection that links one cell’s positive pillar to the next cell’s negative pillar in series.

Terminal Post or Pillar:

It is the upward extension of each connecting bar that extends through the cell cover for cable connections to the outside circuits. The negative terminal post has a smaller diameter than the positive terminal post for simple identification.

Vent Plugs or Filler Caps:

These are normally screwed onto the cover and are composed of polystyrene or rubber. Their purpose is to keep the electrolyte from leaking while allowing the gas to flow freely. These can be simply removed to add distilled water or take hydrometer readings.

External Connecting Straps:

These are the antimonial lead alloy flat bars that extend across the top of the cover, connecting the positive terminal post of one cell to the negative terminal post of the next. Because starting batteries typically carry extremely high currents, they are made of exceptionally sturdy materials.

learn more about active material used in lead acid battery.

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